Human evolution theory utilizing concepts of neoteny & female sexual selection
An etiology of neuropsychological disorders such as autism and dyslexia, and the origin of left handedness.
[abstract] Biochemical evaluation of amniotic fluid contents is often used to monitor fetal secretory and excretory functions. To determine whether cocaine use during pregnancy affects fetal endocrine secretions, amniotic fluid and umbilical artery samples were collected at term, and selected gonadal hormones and prostaglandins were assayed. Gestational age, birth weights, and placental weights were recorded. The data showed that birth weights were significantly decreased (P less than 0.001) in cocaine users, but gestational age and placental weights were unaffected. Amniotic fluid levels of androstenedione and testosterone were decreased (P less than 0.05) in males born to cocaine users; females were not affected. Prostaglandins (PGF2 alpha and PGE2) were significantly increased (P less than 0.01) in cocaine users. In the umbilical artery, follicle-stimulating hormone was increased (P less than 0.01) in males and females, while luteinizing hormone was increased (P less than 0.01) only in males. We conclude that cocaine passes through the placenta and affects the fetal testes-hypophyseal endocrine system.
(Ahluwalia BS, Clark JF, Westney LS, Smith DM, James M, Rajguru S (1992) Amniotic fluid and umbilical artery levels of sex hormones and prostaglandins in human cocaine users. Reprod Toxicol 6(1):57))